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Instructions

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KETERANGAN : Mengisi kuisoner dan posting di Ime

Pembuktian :

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Lesson 15

Instructions

Use the steps to comprehend the text. Read 14th passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words

3. Summary each paragraph/ gist the main idea of each paragraph

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

STATUS : TERCAPAI

KETERANGAN : Reading and answer the question Lesson 15

PEMBUKTIAN :

United States Census Bureau

The principal source of periodic demographic data. Major programs include the Census of Population and Housing (decennial census) and the Intercensal Demographic Estimates. The Census Bureau’s current demographic statistics program provides information on the number, geographic distribution, and social and economic characteristics of the population, including official estimates of income and poverty, estimates of health insurance coverage and homeownership rates, and a quarterly indicator of housing vacancies. The principal source of periodic economic data. Conducts several periodic censuses every five years, covering the years ending in two and seven and major programs include the Economic Census and Census of Governments.

          The fact that most Americans live in urban areas does not mean that they reside in the center of large cities. In fact, more Americans live in the suburbs of large metropolitan areas than in the cities themselves.

The Bureau of the Census regards any area with more than 2500 people as an urban area, and does not consider boundaries of cities and suburbs. According to the Bureau, the political boundaries are less significant than the social and economic relationships and the transportation and communication systems that integrate a locale. The term used by the Bureau for an integrated metropolis is an MSA, which stands for Metropolitan Statistical Area. In general, an MSA is any area that contains a city and its surrounding suburbs and has a total population of 50,000 or more.

At the present time, the Bureau reports more than 280 MSAs, which together account for 75 percent of the US population. In addition, the Bureau recognizes eighteen megapolises, that is, continuous adjacent metropolitan areas. One of the most obvious megapolises includes a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs across the states on the East Coast from Massachusetts to Virginia, including Boston, New York, and Washington, D. C. In the Eastern Corridor, as it is called, a population of 45 million inhabitants is concentrated. Another megapolis that is growing rapidly is the California coast from San Francisco through Los Angels to San Diego.

  1. What is the best title for the passage?
  2. Align with the passage, where do most Americans live?
  3. According to the Bureau of the Census, what is an urban area?
  4. List some nature of an urban area!
  5. What is the synonym to the word integrate in paragraph 2?
  6. What does the wordits in paragraph 2 refer to?
  7. What is the meaning of the word adjacent in paragraph 3?
  8. What is a megapolis, according to the author?
  9. What is the author’s intention that He cites the Eastern Corridor and the California coastin paragraph 3?

—–

1. United States Census Bureau

2. urban areas

3. urban area is the region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have nonagricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways.

4. characterized by high human population density and vast human-built features in comparison to the areas surrounding it,  created and further developed by the process of urbanization.

5. rally

6. MSA ( metropolitan statistical area )

7. berdekatan

8. continuous adjacent metropolitan areas. One of the most obvious megapolises includes a chain of hundreds of cities and suburbs across the states.

9. That is meaning of megapolises area

—-

Main idea

Americans live in the suburbs of large metropolitan areas than in the cities themselves

The Bureau of the Census regards any area with more than 2500 people as an urban area, and does not consider boundaries of cities and suburbs.

At the present time, the Bureau reports more than 280 MSA

decennial : sepanjang sepuluh tahun

Intercensal : antar

poverty : kemiskinan

quarterly : triwulan

Conducts : perilaku

reside : tinggal

consider boundaries : mempertimbangkan batas batas

adjacent : berdekatan

inhabitants : orang yang diam permanen di suatu wilayah

 

 

 

 

Lesson 14

Instructions

Use the steps to comprehend the text. Read 13th passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words

3. Summary each paragraph/ gist the main idea of each paragraph

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

Status : Tercapai

Keterangan :Reading 13th passage and answer the question

Pembuktian :

Seismologists have devised two scales of measurement to enable them to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative terms. The most widely known measurement is the Richter scale, a numerical logarithmic scale developed and introduced by American seismologist Charles R. Richter in 1935. The purpose of the scale is to measure the amplitude of the largest trace recorded by a standard seismograph one hundred kilometers from the epicenter of an earthquake. Tables have been formulated to demonstrate the magnitude of any earthquake from any seismograph. For example, a one-unit increase in magnitude translates into an increase of times thirty in released energy. To put that another way, each number on the Richter scale represents an earthquake ten times as strong as one of the next lower magnitude. Specifically, an earthquake of magnitude 6 is ten times as strong as an earthquake of   magnitude 5.

On the Richter scale, earthquakes of 6.75 are considered great and 7.0 to 7.75 are considered major. An earthquake that reads 4 to 5.5 would be expected to have caused localized damage, and those of magnitude 2 may be felt.

The other earthquake-assessment scale, introduced by the Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli, measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12. Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement. Earthquakes of Mercalli 2 or 3 are basically the same as those of Richter 3 or 4; measurements of 11 or 12 on the Mercalli scale can be roughly correlated with magnitudes of 8 or 9 on the Richter scale. In either case, the relative power or energy released by the earthquake can be understood, and the population waits to hear how bad the earthquake that just passed really was.

It is estimated that almost one million earthquakes occur each year, but most of them are so minor that they pass undetected. In fact, more than one thousand earthquakes of a magnitude of 2 or lower on the Richter scale occur every day.

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?
  2. Align with information in the passage, what does the Richter scale note?
  3. What is the synonym of the word standardin paragraph 1?
  4. What is the benefit of the tables?
  5. How does each number on the Richter scale compare?
  6. What does the author means by the statement :

Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement?

  1.  What is the meaning of the word undetectedin paragraph 4?
  2. Write a conclusion in one statement that it would be the author most probably agree!
  3.  List the explanations of the Richter scale!

—-

Seismologists : seismolog – ilmu yang mempelajari tentang gempa

devised : dirancang

purpose : tujuan

magnitude : besarnya

released : terlepas

represents : merupakan

considered : dianggap

expected : diharapkan

caused : menyebabkan

felt : merasa

assessment : penaksiran

intensity : intensitas

dissipate : menghilang

roughly : kira-kira

occur : terjadi

undetected  : tidak terdeteksi

—–

1. Seismologists

2. each number on the Richter scale represents an earthquake ten times as strong as one of the next lower magnitude

3. generally

4. Tables have been formulated to demonstrate the magnitude of any earthquake from any seismograph. For example, a one-unit increase in magnitude translates into an increase of times thirty in released energy.

5. each number on the Richter scale represents an earthquake ten times as strong as one of the next lower magnitude.

6. Mercally devices depending on the proximity of the device with earthquake location

7. tidak terdeteksi / unprediction when the earthquake attack

8. Seismograph with Ritcher device is more better than Mercally and however earthquke until now can be unprediction when attack, but can be prediction with Ritcher device when high vibration that arises

Main idea

eismologists have devised two scales of measurement to enable them to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative terms.

The purpose Ritcher of the scale is to measure the amplitude of the largest trace recorded by a standard seismograph one hundred kilometers from the epicenter of an earthquake.

The other earthquake-assessment scale, Mercalli measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12. Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake,

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson 13

Instructions

Use the steps to comprehend the text. Read 12th passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words

3. Summary each paragraph/ gist the main idea of each paragraph

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

What Is Noise?

Noise is defined as any unwanted or disagreeable sound and is often dismissed simply as a “nuisance.” However, noise can become harmful when it interferes with a child’s normal activities, such as sleeping or talking, or disrupts or diminishes a child’s health or quality of life.

Measurement of Noise

Noise, like all sounds, is measured by the intensity and frequency of the sound waves that hit the ear. The unit used to measure the volume of sound is the decibel (dB). The greater the number of decibels, the louder the noise and the more harmful it is to your ears.

Although noise, commonly defined as unwanted sound, is a widely recognized form of pollution, it is very difficult to measure because the discomfort experienced by different individuals is highly subjective and, therefore, variable. Exposure to lower levels of noise may be slightly imitating, whereas exposure to higher levels may actually cause hearing loss. Particularly in congested urban areas, the noise produced as a by product of our advancing technology causes physical and psychological harm but it also detracts from the quality of life for those exposed to it.

Unlike the eyes, which can be covered by the eyelids against strong light, the ear has no lid, and is, therefore, always open and vulnerable; noise penetrates without protection.

Noise causes effects that the hearer cannot control and to which the body never becomes accustomed. Loud noises instinctively signal danger to any organism with a hearing mechanism, including human beings. In response, heartbeat and respiration accelerate, blood vessels constrict, the skin pales, and muscles tense. In fact, there is a general increase in functioning brought about by the flow of adrenaline released in response to fear, and some of these responses persist even longer than the noise, occasionally as long as thirty minutes after the sound has ceased.

Because noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly responding in the same ways that we would respond to danger. Recently, researchers have concluded that noise and our response may be much more than an annoyance. It may be a serious threat to physical and psychological health and well-being, causing damage not only to the ear and brain but also to the heart and stomach. We have long known that hearing loss is America’s number one nonfatal health problem, but now we are learning that some of us with heart disease and ulcers may be victims of noise as well. Fetuses exposed to noise tend to be overactive, they cry easily, and they are more sensitive to gastrointestinal problems after birth. In addition, the psychological effect of noise is very important. Nervousness, irritability, tension and anxiety increase, affecting the quality of rest during sleep, and the efficiency of activities during waking hours, as well as the way that we interact with one another.

  1.       What is the author’s main point?
  2.       According to the text, what is noise?
  3.       What is the reason that is noise difficult to measure?
  4.       What is the synonym of the word congested in paragraph 1?
  5.       Align with the text, people respond to loud noise in the same way as they respond to?
  6.       What is the meaning of phrase as well in paragraph 4?
  7.       It can be concluded from this text that the eye?
  8.       Write a conclusion of the text in a statement that It would be the author most probably agree!

Pembuktian

unwanted : yang tidak diinginkan

disagreeable : marah-marah / tidak menyenangkan

nuisance : gangguan

disrupts : mengganggu

diminishes : berkurang

harmful : berbahaya

commonly : umum

recognized : diakui

Exposure : pencahayaan

slightly imitating :  sedikit meniru

congested : padat

detracts : mengurangi

vulnerable : rentan

accustomed : biasa

instinctively : naluriah

constrict : mengerut

skin pales : gangguan warna kulit

occasionally : kadang – kadang

ceased : berhenti

unavoidable  : dihindari

annoyance : gangguan

ulcers : bisul

Fetuses : janin

gastrointestinal : gangguan sistem perncernaan

anxiety : kegelisahan

Main idea

Noise, like all sounds, is measured by the intensity and frequency of the sound waves that hit the ear

Noise, like all sounds, is measured by the intensity and frequency of the sound waves that hit the ear.

noise is a widely recognized form of pollution,

noise penetrates without protection.

Noise causes effects that the hearer cannot control and to which the body never becomes accustomed.

noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly responding in the same ways that we would respond to danger.

1. Highly noise is very harmfull to ears

2.   the intensity and frequency of the sound waves that hit the ear.

3. because the discomfort experienced by different individuals is highly subjective and, therefore, variable.

4. solid

5. Because noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly responding in the same ways that we would respond to danger.

6. serta / demikian juga

7. Different with ears because eye can be covered by the eyelids against strong light, the ear has no lid, and is, therefore, always open and vulnerable; noise penetrates without protection.

8. Highly noise is very harmfull to ears

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay: Reading Comprehension 11

Instructions

Using the tips to comprehend the reading text from James in www.engvid.com,

1. Read reading text on lesson 12 and note 15 minimum difficult words, find out their meanings, gist main idea of each paragraph, and answer the questions given!

2. make your tasks above in iMe BI102R Class and the SKUP as well as send them to dwi.sloria@raharja.info

3. submit them in iDu.

STATUS : Tercapai

Keterangan : Reading text from James in www.engvid.com  and  Read reading text on lesson 12 and note 15 minimum difficult words, find out their meanings, gist main idea of each paragraph, and answer the questions

Pembuktian :

The nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father, and their children, may be more an American ideal than an American reality. Of course, the so called traditional American family was always more varied than we had been led to believe, reflecting the very different racial, ethnic, class, and religious customs among different American groups,  but today diversity is even more obvious.

The most recent government census statistics reveal that only about one third of all current American families fits the traditional mold of two parents and their children, and another third consists of married couples who either have no children or have none still living at home. An analysis of the remaining one third of the population reveals that about 20 percent of the total number of American households are single people, the most common descriptor being women over sixty-five years of age. A small percentage, about 3 percent of the total, consists of unmarried people who choose to live together; the rest, about 7 percent, are single parents, with at least one child.

There are several easily identifiable reasons for the growing number of single-parent households. First, the sociological phenomenon of single-parent households reflects changes in cultural attitudes toward divorce and also toward unmarried mothers. A substantial number of adults become single parents as a result of divorce. In addition, the number of children born to unmarried women who choose to keep their children and rear them by themselves has increased dramatically. Finally, there is a small percentage of single-parent families that have resulted from untimely death. Today, these varied family types are typical and, therefore, normal.

In addition, because many families live far from relatives, close friends have become a more important part of family life than ever before. The vast majority of Americans claim that they have people in their lives whom they regard as family although they are not related. A view of family that only accepts the traditional nuclear arrangement not only ignores the reality of modern American family life, but also undervalues the familial bonds created in alternatives family arrangements. Apparently, many Americans are achieving supportive relationships in family forms other than the traditional one.

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?
  2. What is the synonym of the word current in paragraph 2?
  3. What does the word none in paragraph 2 refer to?
  4. How many single people were identified in the survey?
  5. Who mostly denotes a one-person household?
  6. What does the word undervalues in paragraph 4 mean?
  7. List some reasons for an increase in single-parent households!
  8. Write a summary in one statement about the passage!

nuclear family : keluarga inti / utama

consisting : terdiri

reflecting : mencerminkan

diversity : keragaman

reveal : mengungkapkan

fits : cocok

descriptor : deskripsi

consists : terdiri

identifiable  : diindentifikasi

phenomenon : gejala

addition : tambahan

rear : memelihara

increased : meningkat

untimely : sebelum waktunya

vast : luas

undervalues : dibawah nilai rata-rata

familial bonds : obligasi keluarga

arrangements  : pengaturan

Apparently : tampaknya / rupanya

—-

1. The American Family

2.  Stream

3. not living together

4. 20 percent

5. 7 percent

6. underestimate

7. the sociological phenomenon of single-parent households reflects changes in cultural attitudes toward divorce and also toward unmarried mothers, lack of early childhood education on marriage, low economic factors, promiscuity.

8. The main factor of the problems of the family in America is the lack of understanding of marriage early on, so a lot of single parents who raise their children alone which raises issues of economic factors and education of the child is low.

Main idea

today diversity is even more obvious in America

only about one third of all current American families fits the traditional mold

A substantial number of adults become single parents as a result of divorce.

close friends have become a more important part of family life than ever before

Lesson 11 Essay: Reading Comprehension 10

Instructions

Using the tips to comprehend the reading text 10th from James in www.engvid.com,

1. note 15 minimum difficult words, find out their meanings, gist main idea of each paragraph, and answer the questions given!

2. make a summary about the tenth meeting reading passage.

3. Make your tasks above in iMe class, and submit them in a form of SKUP and in iDu class. Cheers!

STATUS : Tercapai

Keterangan : Reading Comprehension 10

The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms. Although bacteria can be considered a type of plant, secreting poisonous substances into the body of organism they attack, viruses, like the influenza virus, are living organisms themselves. We may consider them regular chemical molecules since they have strictly defined atomic structure; but on the other hand, we must also consider them as being alive since they are able to multiply in unlimited quantities.

An attack brought on by the presence of the influenza virus in the body produces a temporary immunity, but, unfortunately, the protection is against only the type of virus that caused the influenza. Because the disease can be produced by any one of three types, referred to as A, B, or C and many varieties within each type, immunity to one virus will not prevent infection by other types or strains. Protection from the influenza virus is also complicated by the fact that immunity to a specific virus persists for less than a year. Finally, because a virus may periodically change characteristics, the problem of mutation makes it difficult to carry out a successful immunization program. Vaccines are often ineffective against newly evolving strains.

Approximately every ten years, worldwide epidemics of influenza called pandemics occur. Thought to be caused by new strains of type-A virus,  these pandemic viruses have spread rapidly, infecting millions of people.

Vaccines have been developed that have been found to be 70 to 90 percent effective for at least six months against either A or B types of the influenza virus, and a genetically engineered live-virus vaccine is under development. Currently, the United States Public Health Service recommends annual vaccination only for those at greatest risk of complications from influenza, including pregnant women and the elderly. Nevertheless, many other members of the general population request and receive flu shots every year, and even more are immunized during epidemic or pandemic cycles.

 

composed = terdiri

secreting = mensekresi 

poisonous = beracun

substances = zat

strictly =  ketat

consider = pertimbangkan

brought = membawa

disease = penyakit

prevent = mencegah

infection = infeksi

strains = strain (rusak jaringan lunak)

persists = tetap

mutation = mutasi

carry out = melaksanakan / membawa

spread = menyebar 

rapidly = cepat

Summary

The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms. A virus may periodically change characteristics, the problem of mutation makes it difficult to carry out a successful immunization program. Vaccines are often ineffective against newly evolving strains. pandemic viruses have spread rapidly, infecting millions of people.   Vaccines have been developed that have been found to be 70 to 90 percent effective for at least six months against either A or B types of the influenza virus, and a genetically engineered live-virus vaccine is under development.

Quest

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?
  2. According to this passage, bacteria are?
  3. What is the synonym of the word strictly in paragraph 1?
  4. How is the atomic structure of viruses?
  5. Why does the author say that viruses are alive?
  6. What is another word of unlimited in paragraph 1?
  7. According to the passage, how does the body react to the influenza virus?
  8. List some characteristics of pandemics!

Answer

  1. The influenza virus
  2. a type of plant, secreting poisonous substances into the body of organism they attack,
  3. Purely
  4. The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms.
  5. Because viruses are living organisms themselves.
  6. Infinite
  7. An attack brought on by the presence of the influenza virus in the body produces a temporary immunity, but, unfortunately, the protection is against only the type of virus that caused the influenza.
  8. An influenza pandemic occurs when:
    1. A new subtype of virus arises. This means humans have little or no immunity to it. Everyone is at risk.
    2. The virus spreads easily from person to person, such as through sneezing or coughing
    3. The virus begins to cause serious illness worldwide. With past flu pandemics, the virus reached all parts of the globe within six to nine months. With the speed of air travel today, public health experts believe an influenza pandemic could spread much more quickly. A pandemic can occur in waves. And all parts of the world may not be affected at the same time.

Lesson 10

Instructions

Use the steps to comprehend the text.

Read 9th meeting passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words. List the words/vocabularies with their meanings at least 20

3. List the main idea of each paragraph

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

5. Do all those tasks in your BI102R iMe Class and submit your SKUP link in iDu Class on timr. Thank you and

Status : Tecapai

Keterangan : Reading, Vocabullary, and Answer the questions.

Pembuktian :

A geyser is the result of underground water under the combined conditions of high temperatures and increased pressure beneath the surface of the Earth. Since temperature rises about 1F for every sixty feet under the Earth surface, and pressure increases with depth, water that seeps down in cracks and fissures until it reaches very hot rocks in the Earth’s interior becomes heated to a temperature of approximately 290°F.

Water under pressure can remain liquid at temperatures above its normal boiling point, but in a geyser, the weight of the water nearer the surface exerts so much pressure on the deeper water that the water at the bottom of the geyser reaches much higher temperatures than does the water at the top of the geyser. As the deep water becomes hotter, and consequently lighter, it suddenly rises to the surface and shoots out of the surface in the form of steam and hot water. In turn, the explosion agitates all the water in the geyser reservoir, creating further explosions. Immediately afterward, the water again flows into the underground reservoir, heating begins, and the process repeats itself.

In order to function, then, a geyser must have a source of heat, a reservoir where water can be stored until the temperature rises to an unstable point, an opening through which the hot water and steam can escape, and underground channels for resupplying water after an eruption.

Favorable conditions for geyser exist in regions of geologically recent volcanic activity, especially in areas of more than average precipitation. For the most part, geysers are located in three regions of the world: New Zealand, Iceland, and the Yellowstone National Park area of the United States. The most famous geyser in the world is Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park. Old Faithful erupts every hour, rising to a height of 125 to 170 feet and expelling more than ten thousand gallons during each eruption. Old Faithful earned its name because, unlike most geysers, it has never failed to erupt on schedule even once in eighty years of observation.

increased = peningkatan

beneath = bawah

surface = permukaan

seeps = merembes

cracks = retak

fissures = celah

approximately = sekitar 

liquid = cair

boiling point = titik didih 

exerts = diberikannya

consequently lighter = akibatnya lebih ringan

agitates = keresahan / gelisah

reservoir = waduk

unstable point = titik stabil

Favorable conditions = kondisi yang menguntungkan

precipitation = cuah hujan

Immediately = segera

expelling = mengusir

resupplying water = persediaan air

steam = uap

Questions:

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?
  2. What is an important factor for a geyser to erupt?
  3. What does the word it in paragraph 1 refer to?
  4. What is happened as depth increases?
  5. For what reason does the author mention New Zealand and Iceland in paragraph 4?
  6. How many times does Old Faithful erupt?
  7. What does the word expelling in paragraph 4 mean?
  8. What does the author intent by the statement : Old Faithful earned its name because, unlike most geysers, it has never failed to erupt on schedule even once in eighty years of observation?
  9. According to the passage, mention some requirements for a geyser to function!

Answer

  1. Geyser
  2. a geyser must have a source of heat, a reservoir where water can be stored until the temperature rises to an unstable point, an opening through which the hot water and steam can escape, and underground channels for resupplying water after an eruption.
  3. water
  4. water that seeps down in cracks and fissures until it reaches very hot rocks in the Earth’s interior becomes heated to a temperature of approximately 290°F
  5. Location of geyser
  6. Every hour
  7. Spewing water
  8. Because Old Faithful erupts every hour, rising to a height of 125 to 170 feet and expelling more than ten thousand gallons during each eruption
  9. Since temperature rises about 1F for every sixty feet under the Earth surface, and pressure increases with depth, water that seeps down in cracks and fissures until it reaches very hot rocks in the Earth’s interior becomes heated to a temperature of approximately 290°F.

 

 

 

 

Lesson 9

Instructions

Use the steps to comprehend the text.

Read 9th meeting passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words. List the words/vocabularies with their meanings at least 20

3. Summary each paragraph/ gist the main idea of each paragraph

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

5. Do all those tasks in your iMe Class and make its SKUP and submit it in iDu Class on time. Thank you

STATUS : TERCAPAI

KETERANGAN : Reading, Vocabulary, and answer the question Lesson 9

Pembuktian :

Human memory, formerly believed to be rather inefficient, is really much more sophisticated than that of a computer. Researchers approaching the problem from a variety of points of view have all concluded that there is a great deal more stored in our minds than has been generally supposed. Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian neurosurgeon, proved that by stimulating their brains electrically, he could elicit the total recall of complex events in his subjects’ lives. Even dreams and other minor events supposedly forgotten for many years suddenly emerged in detail.

The memory trace is the term for whatever forms the internal representation of the specific information about the event stored in the memory. Assumed to have been made by structural changes in the brain, the memory trace is not subject to direct observation but is rather a theoretical construct that is used to speculate about how information presented at a particular time can cause performance at a later time. Most theories include the strength of the memory trace as a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory. One theory is that the fantastic capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brain cells, stimulated by patterns of activity. Repeated references to the same information support recall. Or, to say that another way, improved performance is the result of strengthening the chemical bonds in the memory.

Psychologists generally divide memory into at least two types, short-term and long-term memory, which combine to form working memory. Short-term memory contains what we are actively focusing on at any particular time, but items are not retained longer than twenty or thirty seconds without verbal rehearsal. We use short-term memory when we look up a telephone number and repeat it to ourselves until we can place the call. On the other hand, long-term memory can store facts, concepts, and experiences after we stop thinking about them. All conscious processing of information, as in problem solving for example, involves both short-term and long-term memory. As we repeat, rehearse, and recycle information, the memory trace is strengthened, allowing that information to move from short-term memory to long-term memory.

formerly = dahulu

approaching = menjelang 

inefficient = tidak efisien

total recall = penariakn ulang keseluruhan

sophisticated = mutakhir

neurosurgeon = ahli bedah saraf

elicit = memperoleh

supposedly = menurut dugaan

suddenly = tiba-tiba

retention = penyimpanan

direct observation = observasi langsung

interconnections = koneksi dalam

strengthening = penguatan 

divide = membagi

retained = ditahan

rehearsal = latihan

conscious = sadar

involves = melibatkan

memory trace = jejak memori

retrieval = pemulihan

Questions:

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?
  2. What is the synonym of the word formerlyin paragraph?
  3. Compared with a computer, what is human memory?
  4. How did Penfield stimulate dreams and other minor events from the past?
  5. Align with the passage, what is the capacity for storage in the brain?
  6. What does the word bondsin paragraph 2 mean?
  7. What is the reason that author mentions looking up a telephone number?
  8. List some nature of a memory trace!
  9. Write one statement that the author would most likely agree!

Answer

  1. Human Memories
  2. Previously
  3. Human memories is more complex than a computer
  4. by stimulating their brains electrically, he could elicit the total recall of complex events in his subjects’ lives.
  5. capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brain cells, stimulated by patterns of activity.
  6. chain of chemical
  7. For knowing short-term memory.
  8. is more complex than a computer, divide 2 ; short term and long term memory,  not subject to direct observation but is rather a theoretical construct that is used to speculate about how information presented at a particular time can cause performance at a later time, a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory.
  9. Human memory is more complex than a computer and divide 2 section long and short term memory, and  a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory.

Listening 2

Instructions

Get the material of “Complete Practice TOEFL Test One” in lesson 7

and Listen to CT1LA.WAV CT1LB.WAV CT1LC.WAV

Do the exercises and submit your work in iDu Class on time!

STATUS : TERCAPAI

KETERANGAN : Listening and Answer The Questions

PEMBUKTIAN :

Part A  (CT1LA)

 

  1. She doesn’t understand the instructions
  2. It is taking him a long time to write his paper
  3. Smoking probably isn’t permitted here
  4. She won’t have time for a vacation
  5. He doesn’t want anymore
  6. She isn’t sure he’ll come to work today
  7. She enjoyed the concert very much
  8. It is not a bad idea to telephone the college
  9. Gas station attendant
  10. Read the instructions for setting up his computer
  11. She is talking on the phone
  12. The women would take the man to the dinner
  13. Susan only has three classes
  14. It stop raining three days ago
  15. He’s looking forward to working with Fred
  16. She won’t be able to join them for dinner
  17. She will leave for the hospital soon
  18. She wasn’t as qualified as the other applicants
  19. Make her mother’s package look more like a gift
  20. He may not be able to extend the deadline
  21. Ask Susan if she will take him to the airport
  22. She is glad that the meeting will take place while she is gone
  23. Any place but library is good for him
  24. He is looking for a job
  25. Buy her a soda
  26. The woman should avoid eating in restaurants
  27. Greg doesn’t do any socializing
  28. She didn’t understand the professor
  29. He wanted to go skiing
  30. Make sure all of Ben’s friends have been invited

Part B  (CT1LB)

Questions 31 through 34. Listen to a conversation about college club

  1. She read about it
  2. She agreed that the Heart Association is a worthy organization
  3. She will sell raffle tickets
  4. He will have time off after the winter season

Questions 35 through 37. Listen to the following conversation between two students who are having lunch together

  1. She had to fill out a survey after her class
  2. In the early years, too many failures may produce a pessimist
  3. The conscience plays a minor role in shaping one’s outlook

Part C  (CT1LC)

Questions 38 through 41. Listen to the following talk about Samuel P. Langley

  1. In a museum
  2. His work provided valuable information for investors who came after him
  3. One of Langley’s inventions
  4. Move into the next room

Questions 42 through 46. Listen to this talk about birds which navigate over oceans

  1. They use landmarks to navigate
  2. They use the stars and some innate magnetic sense
  3. The bird was able to find its way home under seemingly impossible circumstances
  4. Biology
  5. Some of nature mysteries may be beyond our understanding

Questions 47 through 50. Listen to a psychology professor talk about the effect on personality of birth order.

  1. Parents know that their first-born children are likely to be brighter, so they push them to succeed
  2. With sensitive parenting, parents can take steps to reduce the effects of birth order
  3. Middle children are less dependent on their parents’ approval than the oldest child but free from the pressure of being the youngest
  4. First-born children are under a lot of pressure to complete successfully since they are so outnumbered

 

Lesson 7

Pertanyaan

Use the steps to comprehend the text. Read 7th meeting passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words. Write list of those vocabularies and their meaning (at least 20)

3. Summary each paragraph/ gist the main idea of each paragraph

4. Read again and answer the questions given.

Do all those tasks and submit your link BI102 iMe Class and your SKUP.

STATUS : TERCAPAI

KETERANGAN : Reading comprehension lesson 7 and answer the question,.

PEMBUKTIAN :

Perhaps it was his own lack of adequate schooling that inspired Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated. While he was still a boy, his father and older brother died, and he became responsible for supporting his family. Like most of the children in his town, he attended school only two or three months a year. Later, with the help of several teachers, he was able to study law and become a member of the Massachusetts bar, but he never forgot those early struggles.

While serving in the Massachusetts legislature, he signed an historic education bill that set up a state board of education. Without regret, he gave up his successful legal practice and political career to become the first secretary of the board. There he exercised an enormous influence during the critical period of reconstruction that brought into existence the American graded elementary school as a substitute for the older district school system. Under his leadership, the curriculum was restructured, the school year was increased to a minimum of six months, and mandatory schooling was extended to age sixteen. Other important reforms that came into existence under Mann’s guidance included the establishment of state normal schools for teacher training, institutes for in service teacher education, and lyceums for adult education. He was also instrumental in improving salaries for teachers and creating school libraries.

Mann’s ideas about school reform were developed and distributed in the twelve annual reports to the state of Massachusetts that he wrote during his tenure as secretary of education. Considered quite radical at the time, the Massachusetts reforms later served as a model for the nation’s educational system. Mann was formally recognized as the father of public education.

During his lifetime, Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers. In one of his last speeches he summed up his philosophy of education and life: “Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity.” Surely, his own life was an example of that philosophy.

Vocabulary

  1. Lack = kekurangan
  2. Adequate = memadai / mampu
  3. Attended = dihadiri
  4. Struggles = perjuangan
  5. state board = dewan Negara (DPR)
  6. an enormous = sangat besar
  7. restructured = direkstrukturasi / diubah atau dibangun ulang
  8. increased = mengalami peningkatan
  9. mandatory  = wajib
  10. guidance = bimbingan / arahan
  11. establishment = pembentukan
  12. lyceums = is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe. Atau SIstem pendidikan
  13. instrumental = berperan
  14. improving = meningkatkan
  15. tenure = masa jabatan
  16. formally recognized = diakui secara resmi
  17. tirelessly = tanpa lelah
  18. agrarian families = keluarga petani
  19. the children of poor laborers = anak buruh miskin
  20. speeches = pidato
  21. summed up = menyimpulkan

Main Idea

  1. Horace Mann to work so hard to accomplish the important reforms in education that he advocated.
  2. he exercised an enormous influence during the critical period of reconstruction that brought into existence the American graded elementary school as a substitute for the older district school system.
  3. Mann was formally recognized as the father of public education.
  4. Horace Mann worked tirelessly to extend educational opportunities to agrarian families and the children of poor laborers.

Question

  1. The Father of American Public Education
  2. As an example of the importance of an early education for success
  3. Difficult times
  4. The Massachusetts legislature
  5. Basic
  6. Horace Mann’s influence on American education was very great
  7. a district school system
  8. Were later adopted by the nation as a model
  9. Help others