tugas sukma jaya Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizing Basics

Not all plants can access the key nutrients found in the soil or in the air. Each soil type has its own mix of nutritional ingredients, so before considering what fertilizers a plant may require, we need to consider the soil in which a plant is growing.

The three essential elements that all plants need are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium—or N-P-K, the proportions of which are stated as numbers on the package. For instance, a general-purpose fertilizer labeled 20-20-20 means that each chemical element—N, P, and K—contributes 20 percent by weight to the total formula (the remaining 40 percent is composed of inert materials and trace elements).

 

TOEFL MODEL TEST :  Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased. Natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw have been used as fertilizers in fields for thousands of years, and lime has been used since Romans introduced it during the Empire. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that chemical fertilizer became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice. Today, both natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in a variety of forms.

A complete fertilizer is usually6 marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. Synthetic fertilizers, produced by factories, are available in either solid or liquid form. Solids, in the shape of chemical granules, are in demand because they are not only easy to store but also easy to apply. Recently, liquids have shown as increase in popularity, accounting for 20 percent of the nitrogen fertilizer used throughout the world. Formerly, powders were also used, but they were found to be less convenient than either solids or liquids.

Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research. Occasionally, however, farmers may use more fertilizer than necessary, in which case the plants do not need, and therefore do not absorb, the total amount of fertilizer applied to the soil. The surplus of fertilizer thus can damage not only the crop but also the animals or human beings that eat the crop. Furthermore, fertilizer that is not used in the production of a healthy plant is leached into the water table. Accumulations of chemical fertilizer in the water supply accelerate the growth of algae and, consequently, may disturb the natural cycle of life, contributing to the death of fish. Too much fertilizer on grass can cause digestive disorders in cattle and in infants who drink cow’s milk. Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

 

 

  1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?                                     A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer

 

  1. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
  2. A. Limited
  3. B. PreferreD
  4. C. Anticipated
  5. D. Required

 

  1. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?
  2. A. Nitrogen
  3. B. Phosphorus
  4. C. Acid
  5. D. Potash

 

  1. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?
  2. A. 3 percent
  3. B. 5 percent
  4. C.  7 percent
  5. D.  8  percent

 

 

  1. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?
  2. A.Modify
  3. B. Specify
  4. C. Limit
  5. D. Increase

 

  1. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?
  2. A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  3. B. Solids are difficult to store.
  4. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  5. D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

 

  1. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?
  2. A. Powder
  3. B. Solids
  4. C. Liquids
  5. D. Fertilizer

 

  1. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
  2. A. Effective
  3. B. Plentiful
  4. C. Easy to use
  5. D. Heap to produce

 

 

  1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words
  2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning
  3. Reread the text and answer the questions given
  4. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language
  5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph
  6. Make a summary of the passage

 

 

answer

  1. sign the difficult words : Soil, yield,  harmful

 

  1. new vocabulary with their meaning

Soil                 : tanah (land, ground, country, earth, dirt)

Yield              : menghasilkan (produce, generate, result)

Harmful        : bahaya (dangerous, hazardous, treacherous, perilous, noxious)

 

 

 

  1. Answer the questions
  2. 1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?
  3. A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer
  4. B. Advantages and disadvantages of liquid fertilizer
  5. C. A formula for the production of fertilizer
  6. D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

The answer is D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

 

  1. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
  2. A.Limited
  3. B. Preferred
  4. C. Anticipated
  5. D. Required

The answer is D. Required

 

  1. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?
  2. A.Nitrogen
  3. B.Phosphorus
  4. C. Acid
  5. D. Potash

The answer is D. Potash

 

  1. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?
  2. A. 3 percent
  3. B. 5 percent
  4. C. 7 percent
  5. D. 8 percent

The answer is B. 5 percent

 

  1. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?
  2. A. Modify
  3. B. Specify
  4. C. Limit
  5. D. Increase

The answer is B. Specify

 

  1. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?
  2. A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  3. B. Solids are difficult to store.
  4. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  5. D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

The answer is C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.

 

  1. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?
  2. A. Powder
  3. B. Solids
  4. C. Liquids
  5. D. Fertilizer

The answer is A. Powder

 

  1. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
  2. A. Effective
  3. B. Plentiful
  4. C. Easy to use
  5. D.Heap to produce

The answer is C.  Easy to use

 

 

 

  1. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language

Pupuk adalah zat apa saja yang dapat ditambahkan ke tanah untuk menyediakan unsur-unsur kimia yang penting bagi nutrisi tanaman sehingga hasilnya dapat ditingkatkan. Zat alami seperti kotoran hewan, abu dari api kayu, dan jerami telah digunakan sebagai pupuk di ladang selama ribuan tahun, dan jeruk nipis telah digunakan sejak orang Romawi memperkenalkannya selama Kekaisaran. Namun, baru pada abad ke-19 pupuk kimia diterima secara luas sebagai praktik pertanian normal. Saat ini, baik pupuk alami maupun sintetis tersedia dalam berbagai bentuk.

Pupuk lengkap biasanya 6 ditandai dengan formula yang terdiri dari tiga angka, seperti 4-8-2 atau 6-6-4, yang menentukan persentase kandungan nitrogen, asam fosfat, dan kalium dalam urutan yang disebutkan. Pupuk sintetis, diproduksi oleh pabrik, tersedia dalam bentuk padat atau cair. Padatan, dalam bentuk butiran kimia, sangat diminati karena tidak hanya mudah disimpan tetapi juga mudah diaplikasikan. Baru-baru ini, cairan menunjukkan peningkatan popularitas, menyumbang 20 persen dari pupuk nitrogen yang digunakan di seluruh dunia. Dulunya, bubuk juga digunakan, tetapi ternyata lebih tidak nyaman dibandingkan dengan zat padat atau cairan.

Pupuk tidak memiliki efek berbahaya pada tanah, tanaman, atau pelanggan selama mereka digunakan sesuai dengan rekomendasi berdasarkan hasil penelitian lokal. Namun, kadang-kadang, petani dapat menggunakan lebih banyak pupuk daripada yang diperlukan, dalam hal ini tanaman tidak perlu, dan karena itu tidak menyerap, jumlah total pupuk yang diterapkan ke tanah. Kelebihan pupuk dengan demikian dapat merusak tidak hanya tanaman tetapi juga hewan atau manusia yang memakan tanaman. Selain itu, pupuk yang tidak digunakan dalam produksi tanaman yang sehat akan larut ke dalam tabel air. Akumulasi pupuk kimia dalam pasokan air mempercepat pertumbuhan ganggang dan, akibatnya, dapat mengganggu siklus kehidupan alami, berkontribusi pada kematian ikan. Terlalu banyak pupuk pada rumput dapat menyebabkan gangguan pencernaan pada sapi dan pada bayi yang minum susu sapi. Pupuk harus digunakan dengan penuh perhatian untuk penggunaan yang bertanggung jawab atau dapat membahayakan lingkungan.

 

  1. The ideas of each paragraph
  • Paragraph 1 : natural and synthetic fertilizers
  • Paragraph 2 : fertilizer formula and form of fertilizer
  • Paragraph 3 : effect of fertilizer

 

 

  1. Summary

Fertilizers are any substances that can be added to the soil to provide important chemical elements for plant nutrition so that the results can be improved. Natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in various forms

Complete fertilizer is usually characterized by a formula consisting of three numbers that determine the percentage of the content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. Synthetic fertilizers are available in solid or liquid form.

Fertilizers do not have harmful effects on land, plants or customers as long as they are used in accordance with recommendations based on the results of local research. Fertilizers must be used with care for use that is responsible or can endanger the

 

 

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