Author Archives: Sukma Jaya

SKUP SUKMA JAYA BL102Z

]MENGENAL SUKMA.J LEBIH DEKAT .. !!!

 

Salam kenal teman-teman. Saya seorang laki-laki bernama    SUKMA JAYA    biasa akrab dipanggil Sukma. Aku lahir kedunia dari seorang wanita cantik bernama    Nanih (Alm)   dan seorang ayah bernama    Ahmad (alm)    , aku anak ke enam dari tujuh bersaudara… ..

Dari SD dan SMP Perlu SMK masa kanak-kanaku kuhabiskan di pulau Tidung, belanja dan mandi atau Berenang di laut merupakan kegiatan Sehari Aqu, setelah lulus SMK aku bekerja di Jakarta aku menemukan tempat yang cocok untuk kuliah ya itu di perguruan tinggi raharja semoga semua berharap dan cita2 saya bisa terwujud di sini amin
Saya sangat suka dunia kompter dan internet oleh karena itu saya masih merayap-rayap untuk belajar, visi besarku ingin memajukan dunia komputer dan internet di Pulau ku, yaitu di pulau tidung dan akan ku jadikan     “Pulau Tidung Cyber”     yang akan menjadi sebutannya. semoga semua harapan saya dapat terwujud
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tugas sukma jaya Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizing Basics

Not all plants can access the key nutrients found in the soil or in the air. Each soil type has its own mix of nutritional ingredients, so before considering what fertilizers a plant may require, we need to consider the soil in which a plant is growing.

The three essential elements that all plants need are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium—or N-P-K, the proportions of which are stated as numbers on the package. For instance, a general-purpose fertilizer labeled 20-20-20 means that each chemical element—N, P, and K—contributes 20 percent by weight to the total formula (the remaining 40 percent is composed of inert materials and trace elements).

 

TOEFL MODEL TEST :  Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased. Natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw have been used as fertilizers in fields for thousands of years, and lime has been used since Romans introduced it during the Empire. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that chemical fertilizer became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice. Today, both natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in a variety of forms.

A complete fertilizer is usually6 marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. Synthetic fertilizers, produced by factories, are available in either solid or liquid form. Solids, in the shape of chemical granules, are in demand because they are not only easy to store but also easy to apply. Recently, liquids have shown as increase in popularity, accounting for 20 percent of the nitrogen fertilizer used throughout the world. Formerly, powders were also used, but they were found to be less convenient than either solids or liquids.

Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research. Occasionally, however, farmers may use more fertilizer than necessary, in which case the plants do not need, and therefore do not absorb, the total amount of fertilizer applied to the soil. The surplus of fertilizer thus can damage not only the crop but also the animals or human beings that eat the crop. Furthermore, fertilizer that is not used in the production of a healthy plant is leached into the water table. Accumulations of chemical fertilizer in the water supply accelerate the growth of algae and, consequently, may disturb the natural cycle of life, contributing to the death of fish. Too much fertilizer on grass can cause digestive disorders in cattle and in infants who drink cow’s milk. Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

 

 

  1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?                                     A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer

 

  1. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
  2. A. Limited
  3. B. PreferreD
  4. C. Anticipated
  5. D. Required

 

  1. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?
  2. A. Nitrogen
  3. B. Phosphorus
  4. C. Acid
  5. D. Potash

 

  1. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?
  2. A. 3 percent
  3. B. 5 percent
  4. C.  7 percent
  5. D.  8  percent

 

 

  1. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?
  2. A.Modify
  3. B. Specify
  4. C. Limit
  5. D. Increase

 

  1. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?
  2. A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  3. B. Solids are difficult to store.
  4. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  5. D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

 

  1. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?
  2. A. Powder
  3. B. Solids
  4. C. Liquids
  5. D. Fertilizer

 

  1. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
  2. A. Effective
  3. B. Plentiful
  4. C. Easy to use
  5. D. Heap to produce

 

 

  1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words
  2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning
  3. Reread the text and answer the questions given
  4. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language
  5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph
  6. Make a summary of the passage

 

 

answer

  1. sign the difficult words : Soil, yield,  harmful

 

  1. new vocabulary with their meaning

Soil                 : tanah (land, ground, country, earth, dirt)

Yield              : menghasilkan (produce, generate, result)

Harmful        : bahaya (dangerous, hazardous, treacherous, perilous, noxious)

 

 

 

  1. Answer the questions
  2. 1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?
  3. A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer
  4. B. Advantages and disadvantages of liquid fertilizer
  5. C. A formula for the production of fertilizer
  6. D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

The answer is D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

 

  1. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
  2. A.Limited
  3. B. Preferred
  4. C. Anticipated
  5. D. Required

The answer is D. Required

 

  1. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?
  2. A.Nitrogen
  3. B.Phosphorus
  4. C. Acid
  5. D. Potash

The answer is D. Potash

 

  1. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?
  2. A. 3 percent
  3. B. 5 percent
  4. C. 7 percent
  5. D. 8 percent

The answer is B. 5 percent

 

  1. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?
  2. A. Modify
  3. B. Specify
  4. C. Limit
  5. D. Increase

The answer is B. Specify

 

  1. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?
  2. A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  3. B. Solids are difficult to store.
  4. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  5. D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

The answer is C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.

 

  1. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?
  2. A. Powder
  3. B. Solids
  4. C. Liquids
  5. D. Fertilizer

The answer is A. Powder

 

  1. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
  2. A. Effective
  3. B. Plentiful
  4. C. Easy to use
  5. D.Heap to produce

The answer is C.  Easy to use

 

 

 

  1. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language

Pupuk adalah zat apa saja yang dapat ditambahkan ke tanah untuk menyediakan unsur-unsur kimia yang penting bagi nutrisi tanaman sehingga hasilnya dapat ditingkatkan. Zat alami seperti kotoran hewan, abu dari api kayu, dan jerami telah digunakan sebagai pupuk di ladang selama ribuan tahun, dan jeruk nipis telah digunakan sejak orang Romawi memperkenalkannya selama Kekaisaran. Namun, baru pada abad ke-19 pupuk kimia diterima secara luas sebagai praktik pertanian normal. Saat ini, baik pupuk alami maupun sintetis tersedia dalam berbagai bentuk.

Pupuk lengkap biasanya 6 ditandai dengan formula yang terdiri dari tiga angka, seperti 4-8-2 atau 6-6-4, yang menentukan persentase kandungan nitrogen, asam fosfat, dan kalium dalam urutan yang disebutkan. Pupuk sintetis, diproduksi oleh pabrik, tersedia dalam bentuk padat atau cair. Padatan, dalam bentuk butiran kimia, sangat diminati karena tidak hanya mudah disimpan tetapi juga mudah diaplikasikan. Baru-baru ini, cairan menunjukkan peningkatan popularitas, menyumbang 20 persen dari pupuk nitrogen yang digunakan di seluruh dunia. Dulunya, bubuk juga digunakan, tetapi ternyata lebih tidak nyaman dibandingkan dengan zat padat atau cairan.

Pupuk tidak memiliki efek berbahaya pada tanah, tanaman, atau pelanggan selama mereka digunakan sesuai dengan rekomendasi berdasarkan hasil penelitian lokal. Namun, kadang-kadang, petani dapat menggunakan lebih banyak pupuk daripada yang diperlukan, dalam hal ini tanaman tidak perlu, dan karena itu tidak menyerap, jumlah total pupuk yang diterapkan ke tanah. Kelebihan pupuk dengan demikian dapat merusak tidak hanya tanaman tetapi juga hewan atau manusia yang memakan tanaman. Selain itu, pupuk yang tidak digunakan dalam produksi tanaman yang sehat akan larut ke dalam tabel air. Akumulasi pupuk kimia dalam pasokan air mempercepat pertumbuhan ganggang dan, akibatnya, dapat mengganggu siklus kehidupan alami, berkontribusi pada kematian ikan. Terlalu banyak pupuk pada rumput dapat menyebabkan gangguan pencernaan pada sapi dan pada bayi yang minum susu sapi. Pupuk harus digunakan dengan penuh perhatian untuk penggunaan yang bertanggung jawab atau dapat membahayakan lingkungan.

 

  1. The ideas of each paragraph
  • Paragraph 1 : natural and synthetic fertilizers
  • Paragraph 2 : fertilizer formula and form of fertilizer
  • Paragraph 3 : effect of fertilizer

 

 

  1. Summary

Fertilizers are any substances that can be added to the soil to provide important chemical elements for plant nutrition so that the results can be improved. Natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in various forms

Complete fertilizer is usually characterized by a formula consisting of three numbers that determine the percentage of the content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. Synthetic fertilizers are available in solid or liquid form.

Fertilizers do not have harmful effects on land, plants or customers as long as they are used in accordance with recommendations based on the results of local research. Fertilizers must be used with care for use that is responsible or can endanger the

 

 

SKUP TUGAS SUKMA JAYA Reading Comprehension 3

 

PERTANYAAN

 

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning

3. Reread the text and answer the questions given

4. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language

5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

6. Make a summary of the passage

 

JAWABAN

1.       the difficult words

breakthrough, sluggish, directness, sophisticated

 

2.       new vocabulary with their meaning

breakthrough    : terobosan (breach)

sluggish                : lamban (slow, lumbering, plodding, indolent, clumsy)

directness           : keterusterangan (candor, directness, frankness, candidness, freedom)

sophisticated     : mutakhir (current, sophisticated, up-to-date)

 

3.       answer the questions given

1. With which topic is the passage primarily concerned?

A. Technological advances in oceanography

B. Communication among divers

C. Direct observation of the ocean floor

D. Undersea vehicles

  • A. Technological advances in oceanography

 

2. The word sluggish in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to?

A. Nervous

B. Confuse

C. Slow moving

D. Very week

  •   C. Slow moving

 

3. Divers have had problems in communicating under water because?

A. The pressure affected their speech organs

B. The vehicles they used have not been perfected

C. They did not pronounce clearly

D. The water destroyed their speech organs

  •   A. The pressure affected their speech organs

 

4.This passage suggests that the successful exploration of the ocean depends upon?

A. Vehicles as well as divers

B. Radios that divers use to communicate

C. Controlling currents and the weather

D. The limitations of diving equipment

  •   B. Radios that divers use to communicate

 

5. Undersea vehicles ?

A. Are too small for a man to fit inside

B. Are very slow to respond

C. Have the same limitations that divers have

D. Make direct observations of the ocean floor

  •   D. Make direct observations of the ocean floor

 

6. The word cruise in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?

A. Travel at a constant speed

B. Function without problems

C. Stay in communication

D. Remain still

  •   A. Travel at a constant speed

 

7. How is radio-equipped buoy operated?

A.  By operators inside the vehicle in the part underwater

B.  By operators outside the vehicle on a ship

C.  By operators outside the vehicle on a diving platform

D.  By operators outside the vehicle on a laboratory on shore

  •   A.  By operators inside the vehicle in the part underwater

 

8. Which of the following are NOT shown in satellite photographs?

A. The temperature of the ocean’s surface

B. Cloud formation over the ocean

C. A model of the ocean’s movements

D. The location of sea ice

  •   C. A model of the ocean’s movements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.       Translate the passasage into Indonesian language

Kemajuan teknologi baru-baru ini di kendaraan bawah laut berawak dan tak berawak, bersama dengan terobosan dalam teknologi satelit dan peralatan komputer, telah mengatasi beberapa keterbatasan penyelam dan peralatan selam untuk penelitian ilmuwan di Samudra besar dunia. Tanpa kendaraan, penyelam sering menjadi lamban, dan konsentrasi mental mereka sangat terbatas. Karena tekanan bawah laut memengaruhi organ bicara mereka, komunikasi di antara penyelam selalu sulit atau tidak mungkin. Tetapi hari ini, kebanyakan orang menghindari penggunaan pengalih perhatian manusia, lebih disukai untuk mengurangi risiko hidup dan keterusterangan manusia, dari air, atau dari foto-foto yang dibuat oleh satelit yang mengorbit. . Pengamatan langsung dari dasar laut dapat dilakukan tidak hanya oleh penyelam tetapi juga oleh kapal selam dalam teknologi dan fotografi udara canggih dari tempat yang menguntungkan di atas permukaan air. Beberapa kapal selam dapat menyelam ke kedalaman lebih dari tujuh mil dan berlayar di kedalaman lima belas ribu kaki. Selain itu, pelampung yang dilengkapi radio dapat dioperasikan dengan remote control untuk mengirimkan informasi kembali ke laboratorium berbasis darat melalui satelit. Sangat penting untuk data studi kelautan tentang suhu air, arus, dan cuaca. Foto-foto satelit dapat menunjukkan distribusi es laut, lapisan minyak, dan formasi awan di atas lautan. Peta yang dibuat dari gambar satelit dapat mewakili suhu dan warna permukaan laut, memungkinkan para peneliti untuk mempelajari arus laut dari laboratorium di lahan kering. Selain itu, komputer membantu para pelaut untuk mengumpulkan, mengatur, dan menganalisis data dari kapal selam dan satelit. Dengan membuat model pergerakan dan karakteristik samudera, para ilmuwan dapat membuat model pergerakan dan karakteristik samudera.

 

Baru-baru ini, banyak pelaut telah mengandalkan komputer dan komputer untuk penelitian pada kendaraan bawah laut karena mereka dapat menyediakan berbagai informasi yang lebih besar dengan lebih cepat dan lebih efektif. Beberapa masalah umat manusia, terutama yang berkaitan dengan energi dan makanan, dimungkinkan oleh teknologi baru ini.

 

5.       the ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1        : technological advances in oceanography

Paragraph 2        : using computers for seafaring research

 

6.       summary of the passage

Recent technological advances in subsea vehicles along with breakthroughs in satellite technology and computer equipment, have overcome some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment for research scientists in the world’s great Ocean.

Direct observation of the seabed can be carried out not only by divers but also by submarines in advanced aerial technology and photography from a favorable place above the water surface.

Seafarers have relied on computers and computers to research underwater vehicles.

TUGAS SUKMA JAYA 1811390032 Reading Comprehension 2

1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words
2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning
3. Reread the text and answer the questions given
4. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language
5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph
6. Make a summary of the passage

Answer
1. The difficult words
Hurl, stream, extend

2. New vocabulary with their meaning
Hurl : melemparkan (throw, cast, toss, fling, put)
Stream : aliran (flow, school, current, genre, flux)
Extend : memanjang (prolong, lengthen, overstay, elongate, sustain)

3. Answer the questions given
1. What is the author’s main purpose in the passage?
A. To propose a theory to explain sunspots
B. To describe the nature of sunspots
C. To compare the umbra and penumbra in sunspots
D. To argue for the existence of magnetic fields in sunspots
 B. To describe the nature of sunspots

2. The word controversial in paragraph 1 is closet in meaning to?
A. Widely accepted
B. Open to debate
C. Just introduced
D. Very complicated
 B. Open to debate

3. Solar particles are hurled into space by ?
A. Undetermined causes
B. Disturbances of wind
C. Small rivers on the surface of the sun
D. Changes in the Earth’s atmosphere
 B. Disturbances of wind

4. The word particles in paragraph 1 refer to ?
A. Gas explosions in the atmosphere
B. Light rays from the sun
C. Liquid streams on the sun
D. Small pieces of matter from the sun
 D. Small pieces of matter from the sun

5. How can we describe matter from the sun that enters the Earth’s atmosphere?
A. Very small
B. Very hot
C. Very bright
D. Very hard
 A. Very small

6. What does the author mean by the statement Actually, the sunspots are cooler than the rest of
the photosphere, which may account for their apparently darker color?
A. Neither sunspots nor the photosphere is hot.
B. Sunspots in the photosphere do not have any color.
C. The color of sunspots could be affected by their temperature.
D. The size of a sunspot affects its temperature.
 C. The color of sunspots could be affected by their temperature.

7. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to ?
A. Structure
B. Spots
C. Miles
D. Granules
 D. Granules

8. The word consequently in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by?
A. As a result
B. Nevertheless
C. Without doubt
D. In this way
 A. As a result

9. In which configuration do sunspots usually occur?
A. In one spot of varying size
B. In a configuration of two spots
C. In arrangements of one hundred or more spots
D. In groups of several thousand spots
 C. In arrangements of one hundred or more spots

10. How are sunspots explained?
A. Sunspots appear to be related to magnetic fields on the Earth.
B. Sunspots may be related to magnetic fields that follow longitudinal lines on the sun.
C. Sunspots are explained by storms that occur on the Earth.
D. Sunspots have no theory or model to explain them.
 B. Sunspots may be related to magnetic fields that follow longitudinal lines on the sun.

11. The sunspot theory is ?
A. Not considered very important
B. Widely accepted
C. Subject to disagreement
D. Relatively new
 B. Widely accepted

4. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language
Menurut teori sunspot yang kontroversial, badai besar atau letusan di permukaan matahari melemparkan aliran partikel matahari ke ruang angkasa dan akhirnya ke atmosfer planet kita, menyebabkan perubahan cuaca di Bumi dan gangguan pada komunikasi radio dan televisi.

Sebuah sunspot tipikal terdiri dari umbra tengah yang gelap, sebuah kata yang berasal dari kata Latin untuk bayangan, yang dikelilingi oleh penumbra yang lebih terang dari cahaya dan benang gelap memanjang keluar dari pusat seperti jari-jari roda. Sebenarnya bintik matahari lebih dingin daripada bagian photosphere lainnya, yang mungkin menjelaskan warnanya yang tampak lebih gelap. Biasanya, suhu dalam umbra bintik matahari adalah sekitar 4000 K, sedangkan suhu dalam penumbra mendaftar 5500 K, dan butiran luar di tempat itu adalah 6000 K.

Sunspots memiliki ukuran mulai dari butiran kecil hingga struktur kompleks dengan area yang membentang miliaran mil persegi. Sekitar 5 persen dari semua bintik matahari cukup besar sehingga dapat dilihat dari Bumi tanpa instrumen; akibatnya, pengamatan bintik matahari telah direkam selama ribuan tahun.

Sunspot telah diamati dalam pengaturan satu hingga lebih dari seratus titik, tetapi mereka cenderung terjadi berpasangan. Ada juga kecenderungan yang ditandai untuk dua titik dari pasangan untuk memiliki kutub magnet yang berlawanan. Selain itu, kekuatan medan magnet yang terkait dengan bintik matahari apa pun terkait erat dengan ukuran tempat. Bintik matahari juga telah diamati terjadi dalam siklus, selama periode sebelas tahun. Setelah awal suatu siklus, badai terjadi antara 20 dan 40 derajat utara dan selatan khatulistiwa di bawah sinar matahari. saat siklus berlanjut, beberapa badai bergerak semakin dekat ke garis khatulistiwa. Ketika siklus berkurang, jumlah bintik matahari berkurang ke minimum dan mereka mengelompok antara 5 dan 15 derajat lintang utara dan selatan.

Meskipun tidak ada teori yang sepenuhnya menjelaskan sifat dan fungsi bintik matahari, beberapa model menunjukkan upaya ilmuwan untuk menghubungkan fenomena tersebut dengan garis-garis medan magnet di sepanjang garis bujur dari kutub utara dan selatan matahari.

5. The ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1 : controversial sunspot theory
Paragraph 2 : a typical sunspot consists of umbra and penumbra
Paragraph 3 : sunspot size
Paragraph 4 : the strength of the magnetic field associated with any given sunspot is
closely related to the spot’s size.
Paragraph 5 : the efforts of scientists to link the phenomenon with magnetic field lines
along the longitude of the north and south poles of the sun.

6. Summary of the passage

Large storms or eruptions on the sun’s surface throw the flow of solar particles into space and eventually into the atmosphere of our planet, causing weather changes on Earth and disruptions to radio and television communications.

A typical sunspot consists of a dark central umbra, a word derived from the Latin word for shadow, which is surrounded by a lighter penumbra of light and dark threads extending out from the center like the spokes of a wheel.

Sunspots range in size from tiny granules to complex structures with areas stretching for billions of square miles.

Sunspot has been observed in arrangements of one to more than one hundred spots, but they tend to occur in pairs.

SKUP SUKMA JAYA1811390032 BL102Z

MENGENAL SUKMA.J LEBIH DEKAT .. !!!

Salam kenal teman-teman. Saya seorang laki-laki bernama  SUKMA JAYA  biasa akrab dipanggil Sukma. Aku lahir kedunia dari seorang wanita cantik bernama  Nanih (Alm)  dan seorang ayah bernama  Ahmad (alm)  , aku anak ke enam dari tujuh bersaudara… ..

Sejak SD dan SMP Hingga SMK masa kanak-kanaku kuhabiskan di pulau Tidung, belanja dan mandi atau berenang di laut merupakan pengeluaranku, setelah lulus SMK aku bekerja di Jakarta sekian lama aku bisa kuliah jg di perguruan tinggi raharja semoga semua cari di sini.
Saya sangat suka dunia kompter dan internet oleh karena itu saya masih merayap-rayap untuk belajar, visi besarku ingin memajukan dunia komputer dan internet di Pulau ku, yaitu di pulau tidung dan akan ku jadikan   “Pulau Tidung Cyber”   yang akan menjadi sebutannya. semoga semua harapan saya dapat terwujud