Alfred Bernhard Nobel, a Swedish inventor and philanthropist, bequeathed most of his vast fortune to a trust that he designated as a fund from which annual prizes could be awarded to the individuals and organizations that had achieved through invention or discovery that which would have the greatest benefit to humanity in a particular year.
Originally the five classifications for outstanding contributions designated in Nobel’s will included chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and international peace.
Inventor : penemu
Philanthropist : dermawan
Bequeathed : diwariskan
Designated : yang ditunjuk
Invention : penemuan
Particular : tertentu
Humanity : kemanusiaan
Erroneously : keliru
Obituary : berita duka
Establishing : membangun
Administering : mengelola
Statutes : patung
Guidelines : pedoman
Administered continually : diberikan terus menerus
Accomplishments : prestasi
Endowed : diberkahi
Recipients : penerima
Committee : komite
Parliament : parlemen
Literature : sastra / karya ilmiah
What does this passage mainly discuss?
a. Alfred Bernhard Nobel
b. The Nobel Prizes
c. Great contributions to mankind
d. Swedish philanthropy
Why were the prizes named for Alfred Bernhard Nobel?
a. He left money in his will to establish a fund for the prizes
b. He won the first Nobel Prize for his work in philanthropy
c. He is now living in Sweden
d. He serves as chairman of the committee to choose the recipients of the prizes
The word willin paragraph 1 refers to
a. Nobel’s wishes c. future intention
b legal document d. a free choice
How often are the Nobel Prizes awarded?
a. Five times a year c. Twice a year
b. Once a year d. Once every two years
The word outstandingin paragraph 2 could best be replaced by
a. recent c. established
b. unusual d. exceptional
A Nobel Prize would NOT be given to
a. an author who wrote a novel
b. a doctor who discovered a vaccine
c. a composer who wrote a symphony
d. a diplomat who negotiated a peace settlement
What does the author mean by the statement :
“These prizes have been administered continually by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm since they were first awarded in 1901?”
a. The Nobel Foundation oversees the management of the money and the distribution of the prizes
b. The Nobel Foundation selects the recipients of the prizes
c. The Nobel Foundation solicits applications and recommendations for the prizes
d. The Nobel foundation recommends new prize classifications
Why are the award presented on December 10?
a. It is a tribute to the King of Sweden
b. Alfred Bernhard Nobel died on that
c. That date was established in Alfred Nobel’s will
d. The Central Bank of Sweden administers the trust
Structure and Written Expressions
Addition – Besides
Besides means in addition to. Beside means near.
Besides our dog, we have two cats and a canary
Besides white, we stock green and blue
We sat beside the teacher
Incorrect: Beside Marge, three couples are invited.
Correct : Besides Marge, three couples are invited.
Exception – But and Except
Remember that when it is used as a preposition, but means except.
All of the students but the seniors will receive their grades
All of the students except the seniors will receive their grades
Avoid using exception, except to or excepting instead of except.
Incorrect: All of the group exception Barbara went to the lake.
Correct : All of the group but Barbara went to the lake.
All of the group except Barbara went to the lake.
Replacement – Instead of and Instead
Remember that instead of and instead both meaning place of, but instead of is used before a noun, adjective, or adverb, and instead is used at the end of a sentence or a clause to refer to a noun, adjective, or adverb that has already been mentioned.
adverb instead of adverb
We went to Colorado instead of abroad on our vacation this year
You should be firm instead of patient in this case
Treat the dog gently instead of roughly
We went to Colorado instead
You should be firm instead
Treat the dog gently instead
Avoid using instead before a noun.
Incorrect: Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead a geologist.
Correct : Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead of a geologist.
Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead.
Example – Such as
Remember that such as means for example.
such as noun (example)
Some birds such as robins and cardinal spend the winter in the North.
Avoid using such or as such instead of such as.
Incorrect: By using coupons, you can get a discount on a lot of things, such groceries, toiletries, and household items.
Correct : By using coupons, you can get a discount on a lot of things, such as groceries, toiletries, and household items.