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SKUP SUKMA JAYA BL102Z

]MENGENAL SUKMA.J LEBIH DEKAT .. !!!

 

Salam kenal teman-teman. Saya seorang laki-laki bernama    SUKMA JAYA    biasa akrab dipanggil Sukma. Aku lahir kedunia dari seorang wanita cantik bernama    Nanih (Alm)   dan seorang ayah bernama    Ahmad (alm)    , aku anak ke enam dari tujuh bersaudara… ..

Dari SD dan SMP Perlu SMK masa kanak-kanaku kuhabiskan di pulau Tidung, belanja dan mandi atau Berenang di laut merupakan kegiatan Sehari Aqu, setelah lulus SMK aku bekerja di Jakarta aku menemukan tempat yang cocok untuk kuliah ya itu di perguruan tinggi raharja semoga semua berharap dan cita2 saya bisa terwujud di sini amin
Saya sangat suka dunia kompter dan internet oleh karena itu saya masih merayap-rayap untuk belajar, visi besarku ingin memajukan dunia komputer dan internet di Pulau ku, yaitu di pulau tidung dan akan ku jadikan     “Pulau Tidung Cyber”     yang akan menjadi sebutannya. semoga semua harapan saya dapat terwujud
NOSTATUSKETERANGANGRADED

tugas sukma jaya Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizing Basics

Not all plants can access the key nutrients found in the soil or in the air. Each soil type has its own mix of nutritional ingredients, so before considering what fertilizers a plant may require, we need to consider the soil in which a plant is growing.

The three essential elements that all plants need are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium—or N-P-K, the proportions of which are stated as numbers on the package. For instance, a general-purpose fertilizer labeled 20-20-20 means that each chemical element—N, P, and K—contributes 20 percent by weight to the total formula (the remaining 40 percent is composed of inert materials and trace elements).

 

TOEFL MODEL TEST :  Reading Comprehension 4

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased. Natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw have been used as fertilizers in fields for thousands of years, and lime has been used since Romans introduced it during the Empire. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that chemical fertilizer became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice. Today, both natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in a variety of forms.

A complete fertilizer is usually6 marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. Synthetic fertilizers, produced by factories, are available in either solid or liquid form. Solids, in the shape of chemical granules, are in demand because they are not only easy to store but also easy to apply. Recently, liquids have shown as increase in popularity, accounting for 20 percent of the nitrogen fertilizer used throughout the world. Formerly, powders were also used, but they were found to be less convenient than either solids or liquids.

Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research. Occasionally, however, farmers may use more fertilizer than necessary, in which case the plants do not need, and therefore do not absorb, the total amount of fertilizer applied to the soil. The surplus of fertilizer thus can damage not only the crop but also the animals or human beings that eat the crop. Furthermore, fertilizer that is not used in the production of a healthy plant is leached into the water table. Accumulations of chemical fertilizer in the water supply accelerate the growth of algae and, consequently, may disturb the natural cycle of life, contributing to the death of fish. Too much fertilizer on grass can cause digestive disorders in cattle and in infants who drink cow’s milk. Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

 

 

  1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?                                     A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer

 

  1. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
  2. A. Limited
  3. B. PreferreD
  4. C. Anticipated
  5. D. Required

 

  1. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?
  2. A. Nitrogen
  3. B. Phosphorus
  4. C. Acid
  5. D. Potash

 

  1. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?
  2. A. 3 percent
  3. B. 5 percent
  4. C.  7 percent
  5. D.  8  percent

 

 

  1. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?
  2. A.Modify
  3. B. Specify
  4. C. Limit
  5. D. Increase

 

  1. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?
  2. A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  3. B. Solids are difficult to store.
  4. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  5. D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

 

  1. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?
  2. A. Powder
  3. B. Solids
  4. C. Liquids
  5. D. Fertilizer

 

  1. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
  2. A. Effective
  3. B. Plentiful
  4. C. Easy to use
  5. D. Heap to produce

 

 

  1. Read the text quickly and sign the difficult words
  2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning
  3. Reread the text and answer the questions given
  4. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language
  5. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph
  6. Make a summary of the passage

 

 

answer

  1. sign the difficult words : Soil, yield,  harmful

 

  1. new vocabulary with their meaning

Soil                 : tanah (land, ground, country, earth, dirt)

Yield              : menghasilkan (produce, generate, result)

Harmful        : bahaya (dangerous, hazardous, treacherous, perilous, noxious)

 

 

 

  1. Answer the questions
  2. 1. With which of the following topics in the passage primarily concerned?
  3. A. Local research and harmful effects of fertilizer
  4. B. Advantages and disadvantages of liquid fertilizer
  5. C. A formula for the production of fertilizer
  6. D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

The answer is D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer

 

  1. The word essential in the paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
  2. A.Limited
  3. B. Preferred
  4. C. Anticipated
  5. D. Required

The answer is D. Required

 

  1. Which of the following has the smallest percentage content in the formula 4-8-2?
  2. A.Nitrogen
  3. B.Phosphorus
  4. C. Acid
  5. D. Potash

The answer is D. Potash

 

  1. What is the percentage of nitrogen in a 5-8-7 formula fertilizer?
  2. A. 3 percent
  3. B. 5 percent
  4. C. 7 percent
  5. D. 8 percent

The answer is B. 5 percent

 

  1. The word designate in the paragraph 2 could best be replaced by ?
  2. A. Modify
  3. B. Specify
  4. C. Limit
  5. D. Increase

The answer is B. Specify

 

  1. Which of the following statements about fertilizer is true?
  2. A. Powders are more popular than ever.
  3. B. Solids are difficult to store.
  4. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  5. D. Chemical granules are difficult to apply.

The answer is C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.

 

  1. The word they in the paragraph 2 refers to?
  2. A. Powder
  3. B. Solids
  4. C. Liquids
  5. D. Fertilizer

The answer is A. Powder

 

  1. The word convenient in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to?
  2. A. Effective
  3. B. Plentiful
  4. C. Easy to use
  5. D.Heap to produce

The answer is C.  Easy to use

 

 

 

  1. Translate the passasage into Indonesian language

Pupuk adalah zat apa saja yang dapat ditambahkan ke tanah untuk menyediakan unsur-unsur kimia yang penting bagi nutrisi tanaman sehingga hasilnya dapat ditingkatkan. Zat alami seperti kotoran hewan, abu dari api kayu, dan jerami telah digunakan sebagai pupuk di ladang selama ribuan tahun, dan jeruk nipis telah digunakan sejak orang Romawi memperkenalkannya selama Kekaisaran. Namun, baru pada abad ke-19 pupuk kimia diterima secara luas sebagai praktik pertanian normal. Saat ini, baik pupuk alami maupun sintetis tersedia dalam berbagai bentuk.

Pupuk lengkap biasanya 6 ditandai dengan formula yang terdiri dari tiga angka, seperti 4-8-2 atau 6-6-4, yang menentukan persentase kandungan nitrogen, asam fosfat, dan kalium dalam urutan yang disebutkan. Pupuk sintetis, diproduksi oleh pabrik, tersedia dalam bentuk padat atau cair. Padatan, dalam bentuk butiran kimia, sangat diminati karena tidak hanya mudah disimpan tetapi juga mudah diaplikasikan. Baru-baru ini, cairan menunjukkan peningkatan popularitas, menyumbang 20 persen dari pupuk nitrogen yang digunakan di seluruh dunia. Dulunya, bubuk juga digunakan, tetapi ternyata lebih tidak nyaman dibandingkan dengan zat padat atau cairan.

Pupuk tidak memiliki efek berbahaya pada tanah, tanaman, atau pelanggan selama mereka digunakan sesuai dengan rekomendasi berdasarkan hasil penelitian lokal. Namun, kadang-kadang, petani dapat menggunakan lebih banyak pupuk daripada yang diperlukan, dalam hal ini tanaman tidak perlu, dan karena itu tidak menyerap, jumlah total pupuk yang diterapkan ke tanah. Kelebihan pupuk dengan demikian dapat merusak tidak hanya tanaman tetapi juga hewan atau manusia yang memakan tanaman. Selain itu, pupuk yang tidak digunakan dalam produksi tanaman yang sehat akan larut ke dalam tabel air. Akumulasi pupuk kimia dalam pasokan air mempercepat pertumbuhan ganggang dan, akibatnya, dapat mengganggu siklus kehidupan alami, berkontribusi pada kematian ikan. Terlalu banyak pupuk pada rumput dapat menyebabkan gangguan pencernaan pada sapi dan pada bayi yang minum susu sapi. Pupuk harus digunakan dengan penuh perhatian untuk penggunaan yang bertanggung jawab atau dapat membahayakan lingkungan.

 

  1. The ideas of each paragraph
  • Paragraph 1 : natural and synthetic fertilizers
  • Paragraph 2 : fertilizer formula and form of fertilizer
  • Paragraph 3 : effect of fertilizer

 

 

  1. Summary

Fertilizers are any substances that can be added to the soil to provide important chemical elements for plant nutrition so that the results can be improved. Natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in various forms

Complete fertilizer is usually characterized by a formula consisting of three numbers that determine the percentage of the content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium. Synthetic fertilizers are available in solid or liquid form.

Fertilizers do not have harmful effects on land, plants or customers as long as they are used in accordance with recommendations based on the results of local research. Fertilizers must be used with care for use that is responsible or can endanger the

 

 

SKUP SEPTIAN BL101Z

Perkenalkan nama sama Septian Saputra, biasa dipanggil Paing. Asal dari Pulau Tidung, Kepulauan Serib, DKI Jakarta. Saya anak pertama dari tiga bersaudara. Saya senang sekali olahraga sepakbola. Saya berharap dapat membahagiakan orangtua saya dan bisa berguna bagi orang-orang disekitar saya. Sekedar info saya masih single loh…..

NOKETERANGANSTATUS GRADED

Lesson 1 – Reading

It has long been known that when the green parts of plants are exposed to light under suitable conditions of temperature and moisture, carbon dioxide is absorbed by the plant from the atmospheric CO2, and oxygen is released into the air. This exchange of gases in plants is the opposite of the process that occurs in respiration. Here is a summary chemical equation for photosynthesis :

6CO2 + 6H2O ® C6H12O6 + 6O2

As a result of this process, radiant energy from the sun is stored as chemical energy. In turn, the chemical energy is used to decompose carbon dioxide and water. The products of their decomposition are recombined into a new compound, which successively builds up into the more and more complex substances that comprise the plant. The process of photosynthesis can be understood as an enzyme-induced chemical change from carbon dioxide and water into the simple sugar glucose. This carbohydrate, in turn, is utilized by the plant to generate other forms of energy, such as the long chains of plant cells or polymers that comprise the cellular structures of starches or cellulose. At the same time, a balance of gases is preserved in the atmosphere by the process of photosynthesis.

Vocab :

Exposed     : To subject (a photographic film, for example) to the action of light / terkena

Moisture   : kelembaban

Absorbed : diserap

Occurs      : terjadi

Respiration : pernapasan

Light trapping : perangkap cahaya

Substances : substansi / bagian

Translocated : translokasi / perpindahan lokasi

Diffuses : menyebar

Equation : persamaan

Decompose : membusuk

new compound : senyawa baru

successively : berturut turut

comprise : meliputi

starches : pati

understood : dipahami

utilized : dimanfaatkan

involved : terlibat

preserved : diawetkan

 

1. Which title best expresses the ideas in this passage

a. A Chemical Equation

b. The Process of Photosynthesis

c. The Parts of Vascular Plants

d. The Production of Sugar

 

2. The combination of carbon dioxide and water to form sugar results in an excess of

a. water

b. oxygen

c. carbon

d. chlorophyll

 

3. Which process is the opposite of photosynthesis?

a. Decomposition

b. Synthesization

c. Diffusion

d. Respiration

 

4. In photosynthesis, energy from the sun is

a. changed to chemical energy

b. conducted from the xylem to the leaves of green plants

c. not necessary to the process

d. released one to one for each molecule of carbon dioxide used

 

5. The word storedin paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to

a. retained

b. converted

c. discovered

d. specified

 

6. The word theirin paragraph 2 refers to

a. radiant energy and chemical energy

b. carbon dioxide and water

c. products

d. complex substances

 

7. The word successivelyin paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to

a. with effort

b. In a sequence

c. slowly

d. carefully

 

8. Besides the manufacturer of food for plants, what is another benefit of photosynthesis?

a. It produces solar energy

b. It diffuses additional carbon dioxide into the air

c. It maintains a balance of gases in the atmosphere

d. It removes harmful gases from the air

 

9. Which of the following is NOT true of the oxygen used in photosynthesis?

a. Oxygen is absorbed by the roots

b. Oxygen is the product of photosynthesis

c. Oxygen is used in respiration

d. Oxygen is released into the atmosphere through the leaves

Place – Between and Among

between and among have the same meaning, but between is used with two nouns and among is used with three or more nouns or a plural noun.

 

between                     noun 1                                    noun 2

The work is distributed                        between                 the secretary          and          the receptionist

among            noun 1            noun 2                        noun 3

 

The rent payments are divided           among                Don,             Bill,              and            Gene

Avoid using between with three or more nouns or a plural noun

Examples

Incorrect:  The choice is between a vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream cone.

Correct  :  The choice is among a vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry ice cream cone.

Place – In, On and At

in, on,and at have similar meanings, but they are used with different kinds of places. In general, in is used before large placeson is used before middle–sized places; and at is used before numbers in addresses. Finally, in is used again before very small places.

 

  in COUNTRY                         on STREET                         at NUMBER            In a corner

      STATE                                   STREET CORNER                                        (of a room)

      PROVINCE                            COAST                                                           a room

            COUNTY                                RIVER                                                             a building                         

CITY                                        a ship                                                              a park

                                                a train                                                              a car

                                                a plane                                                            a boat

 

in              COUNTRY                        in                 STATE               in              CITY

We live            in         the United States        in           North Carolina           in         Jacksonville

on                    COUNTRY                 on             RIVER                    at                 NUMBER

on                 the East Coast               on          New River                 at             2600 River Road

 

Avoid using in instead of on for streets and other middle-sized places.

Examples

Incorrect:  Cliff can live on Yellowstone National Park because he is a park ranger.

Correct  :  Cliff can live in Yellowstone National Park because he is a park ranger.

—-

Time – In, On and At

 

Remember that in, on,and at have similar meanings, but they are used with different times. In general, in is used before large units of timeon is used before middle–sized units of time; and at is used before numbers in clock time.

 

In YEAR                                        on Day                                                at TIME

    MONTH                                         DATE                    

 

in          YEAR         in           MONTH        on             DAY           at         TIME

 

Lily was born       in           1919          in         December      on           Sunday         at         7:00

Avoid using in before days and dates.

Examples

Incorrect:  I would rather take classes on the afternoon.

Correct  :  I would rather take classes in the afternoon.

 

 

Lesson 2

Alfred Bernhard Nobel, a Swedish inventor and philanthropist, bequeathed most of his vast fortune to a trust that he designated as a fund from which annual prizes could be awarded to the individuals and organizations that had achieved through invention or discovery that which would have the greatest benefit to humanity in a particular year.

Originally the five classifications for outstanding contributions designated in Nobel’s will included chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and international peace.

 

Vocabulary

Inventor                              : penemu

Philanthropist                   : dermawan

Bequeathed                       : diwariskan

Designated                         : yang ditunjuk

Invention                            : penemuan

Particular                            : tertentu

Humanity                            : kemanusiaan

Erroneously                       : keliru

Obituary                              : berita duka

Establishing                       : membangun

Administering                   : mengelola

Statutes                               : patung

Guidelines                                         : pedoman

Administered continually            : diberikan terus menerus

Accomplishments                           : prestasi

Endowed                                             : diberkahi

Recipients                                          : penerima

Committee                                         : komite

Parliament                                         : parlemen

Literature                                            : sastra / karya ilmiah

 

What does this passage mainly discuss?

a. Alfred Bernhard Nobel

b. The Nobel Prizes

c. Great contributions to mankind

d. Swedish philanthropy

 

Why were the prizes named for Alfred Bernhard Nobel?

aHe left money in his will to establish a fund for the prizes

b. He won the first Nobel Prize for his work in philanthropy

c. He is now living in Sweden

d. He serves as chairman of the committee to choose the recipients of the prizes

 

The word willin paragraph 1 refers to

a.  Nobel’s wishes                      c.  future intention

b   legal document                         d.  a free choice

 

How often are the Nobel Prizes awarded?

a. Five times a year                           c. Twice a year

b. Once a year                                d.  Once every two years

 

The word outstandingin paragraph 2 could best be replaced by

a. recent                                              c.  established

b. unusual                                       d.  exceptional

 

A Nobel Prize would NOT be given to

a. an author who wrote a novel

b. a doctor who discovered a vaccine

c. a composer who wrote a symphony

d. a diplomat who negotiated a peace settlement

 

What does the author mean by the statement :

“These prizes have been administered continually by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm since they were first awarded in 1901?”

a. The Nobel Foundation oversees the management of the money and the distribution of the prizes

b. The Nobel Foundation selects the recipients of the prizes

c. The Nobel Foundation solicits applications and recommendations for the prizes

d. The Nobel foundation recommends new prize classifications

 

Why are the award presented on December 10?

a. It is a tribute to the King of Sweden

b. Alfred Bernhard Nobel died on that

c. That date was established in Alfred Nobel’s will

d. The Central Bank of Sweden administers the trust

——–

Structure and Written Expressions

Addition – Besides

Besides means in addition toBeside means near.

noun

besides                       adjective

 

Besides                         our dog,                     we have two cats and a canary

Besides                           white,                            we stock green and blue

 

beside                            noun

 

We sat                         beside                          the teacher

 

Examples

Incorrect:  Beside Marge, three couples are invited.

Correct  :  Besides Marge, three couples are invited.

——

Exception – But and Except

Remember that when it is used as a prepositionbut means except.

but

except                            noun

All of the students                      but                            the seniors                  will receive their grades

All of the students                   except                         the seniors                  will receive their grades

Avoid using exceptionexcept to or excepting instead of except.

 

Examples

Incorrect:  All of the group exception Barbara went to the lake.

Correct  :  All of the group but Barbara went to the lake.

or

All of the group except Barbara went to the lake.

—–

Replacement – Instead of and Instead

Remember that instead of and instead both meaning place of, but instead of  is used before a noun, adjective, or adverb, and instead is used at the end of a sentence or a clause to refer to a noun, adjective, or adverb that has already been mentioned.

noun                                        noun

adjective                                 adjective

adverb            instead of         adverb

We went to                Colorado           instead of          abroad         on our vacation this year

You should be                 firm                instead of          patient                     in this case

Treat the dog                 gently                          instead of          roughly

noun

adjective

adverb                   instead

We went to                Colorado                 instead

You should be                 firm                      instead

Treat the dog                 gently                                instead

Avoid using instead before a noun.

Examples

Incorrect:  Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead a geologist.

Correct  :  Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead of a geologist.

or

Bob’s father wanted him to be an engineer instead.

—–

Example – Such as

Remember that such as means for example.

such as              noun (example)

Some birds                  such as             robins and cardinal               spend the winter in the North.

Avoid using such or as such instead of such as.

Examples

Incorrect:  By using coupons, you can get a discount on a lot of things, such groceries, toiletries, and household items.

Correct  :  By using coupons, you can get a discount on a lot of things, such as groceries, toiletries, and household items.